Experimental Evidence For And Against The Immediate Use Of Contextual Information During Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution.

1488 words - 6 pages

Contextual knowledge assists the final interpretation of a syntactically ambiguous sentence. However, research has not reach the consensus on how and when contextual information is used by the processer with regard to ambiguity resolution.
Two-stage models imply that parsing is computed serially, with initially purely syntactic-relevant information being actively processed (Pan & Felser, 2011). The structure of the sentence is then evaluated and reanalyzed with other sources of information such as context are used in the second processing stage. The most influential model in this category is the"garden-path" model suggested by Frazier and Rayner (1982). That is, the garden-path model is a ...view middle of the document...

, 1996).
However, as opposeed to structural models, Discourse-based theories such as the Referential Theory originally proposed by Crain and Steedman (1985) and further developed by Altmann and Steedman (1988) and Ni and Crain (1990) claim that the parser’s initial syntactic analysis will be immediately affected by referential context information,with appropriate discourse contexts reversing syntactic preferences, or the preference for alternative with fewest presuppositions will be chosen. Hence, sentences that involve ambiguous PPs and where the presupposition of the NP attachment interpretation is not satisfied will result in a preference for VP modification since such analysis would require the fewest possible pragmatic presuppositions. Therefore, in a sentence The policeman watched the spy with binoculars in which the NP is fixed, the VP modification processing entails the presupposition of a single referent for this NP only; while the NP modification processing requires the parser to presuppose that there is more than one referent for the spy in the context, with the PP in a role of a restrictive modifier that detects a unique referent.According to the referential hypothesis, in the presence of discourse context that entails more than one potential referent for the postverbal NP , the parser will be required to render one of the referents, and thus , the presupposition of the NP attachment interpretation is satisfied and NP attachment should be preferred. This is in line with the study of Altmann and Steedman (1988) who examined native speakers of English read a short context paragraph that was followed by syntactically ambiguous sentences such as The burglar blew open the safe with the dynamite (with the new lock) and made off. Presented to participants sentences were disambiguated towards either VP attachment (with the dynamite) or NP attachment (with the new lock).The referential context of a preceding paragraph was manipulated to provide readers with either one or two potential discourse referents for the postverbal NP (the safe).The results revelaed that participants’ mean reading times for sentences containing NP attachment PPs were significantly faster than for those in VP attachment condition if the sentences followed after a two-referent context such as A burglar broke into a bank carrying some dynamite. He planned to blow open a safe. Once inside he saw that there was a safe with a new lock and a safe with an old lock. Longer reading times are believed to imply increased processing and thus, greater comprehension struggle. The above findings suggest that an NP attachment processing is indeed preferred over a VP attachment processing in an two-referent context. However, in a self-paced reading version of the experiment where subjects were presented with segmented sentence instead of whole one, the referential context did not consistently influenced participants’ disambiguation preferences. In contrast, prepositional...

Find Another Essay On Experimental evidence FOR and AGAINST the immediate use of contextual information during syntactic ambiguity resolution.

Evaluate the evidence for and against the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

1029 words - 4 pages , not all critics of Whorf’s theory were negative. Carrol and Casagrande (1958) proved that Navaho Indian children were better at form recognition than western children, helping to confirm Whorf’s hypothesis that language determines thought.Several studies have also been performed which show support for the theory of linguistic relativity. Lucy and Shweder (1979) performed a colour memory test which was found to support Whorf’s

The Great Gatsby: Evidence of Insecurity and Ambiguity that Question Nick Carraway's Heterosexuality

1249 words - 5 pages Gatsby]" (Fitzgerald 6). In addition, Nick realizes that a man is most powerless among other men when one admits to an inner emotional life, such as when Tom Buchanan expressed his sadistic righteousness over Gatsby during his confrontation of him and Daisy. Nick's immediate response to Tom Buchanan's humiliation of Jay Gatsby was sympathy for Gatsby and fear for himself. Nick feared that if he expressed his sympathy for Gatsby or fear for himself

Evidence for Information Processing in the Brain

2702 words - 11 pages life and information: but as a tool - héla! pattern recognition - can help us to have more information about humans and other animals perceptual cases. REFERENCES Burock, Marc (2010). Evidence for Information Processing in the Brain. [Preprint] URL: http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu/id/eprint/8845 [7 January 2014] Callebaut, Werner. 1993. Taking the Naturalistic Turn, or, How Real Philosophy of Science Is Done. Chicago: University of Chicago

Discuss and Evaluate the Arguments For and Against the Use of the Death Penalty.

3024 words - 12 pages Discuss and evaluate the arguments for and against the use of the death penalty.Capital punishment is "the infliction of death as punishment for certain crimes" (dictionary online). In the Bible itself it prescribes death for crimes such as murder, kidnapping, witchcraft and many more. By 1500, in England, only foremost felonies conceded the death penalty - murder, larceny, burglary, rape, arson and treason. However, from 1723 under the "Waltham

Causes of the War for American Independence - Includes immediate and underlying causes

1020 words - 4 pages The cause of the War for American Independence was not simply one event. War resulted from a combination of happenings that built up a rebellious spirit inside the colonists. To be brief, the overall cause of the War for American independence was the fact that the British constantly enforced upon the colonists that which they did not want, such as taxes and regulation. As time went on, the fact that the colonies were thousands of miles away from

Write an article arguing for or against the use of mobile phones and technology in schools

815 words - 3 pages Nowadays science and Technology has been advance and develop also. We are now living in a modern society, in which the standard of our living is improving day by day. The use of modern technology has become an essential part of our life. Nowadays the mobile phones have also become an essential part of our life because everywhere the people are using it for e.g. even the students are also using them in their daily life. The students are using

Is there strong evidence for the use of psychological therapy for treating anxiety disorders?

2078 words - 8 pages Is there strong evidence for the use of psychological therapy for treating anxiety disorders?Anxiety is an emotion that all humans feel from time to time. However, an overwhelming feeling of anxiety, including fear, discomfort and apprehension, over every day or imagined events is when this feeling becomes a disorder. Anxiety disorders can be triggered by something that seems trivial to others. This continuous feeling of fear can impose on daily

Is there strong evidence for the use of psychological therapy for treating anxiety disorders?

1963 words - 8 pages Is there strong evidence for the use of psychological therapy for treating anxiety disorders?The following essay will discuss whether or not psychological therapy is effective for treating anxiety disorder. To show strong evidence that it is effective, the efficacy of psychological therapy for children and adolescents, and the comparison between different treatments are being studied.Anxiety is an unpleasant emotional state, which people have

Explain with reference to the relevant experimental evidence the main models of pattern recognition. Jonesy Smith

2048 words - 8 pages ; But... \ / - is not recognized as AThe third type of model is the Structural Model. The basic premise behind this model is building on the Feature model by accounting for the relationship between features. For example, Lockhead and Crist (1980) demonstrated that we can use relational information when recognising patterns. They examined a number of conditions. In one condition they got children to sort a deck of cards containing the letters "p" and

The Use of Forensic Evidence in Investigation

3195 words - 13 pages Nearly anyone you ask would be familiar with the television show CSI. The crime lab is colorful and high-tech with all of the fun toys and machines that analysts use to test the ever abundant amount of forensic evidence from every crime scene. It makes for an exciting drama that you cannot help but get immersed in—it also gives us a false illusion, however, creating what has been dubbed as the “CSI effect” (Baskin, 2011). This effect describes

Immediate and Far Reaching Effects of the Slave Trade

730 words - 3 pages depended on to protect their communities, and with them no longer there, the people of this region were left open to further exploitation. This weakness was exploited by other groups of Africans who being encouraged by Europeans would find more Africans to sell in exchange for guns. This exploitation would eventually come into further fruition when European nations began the Scramble for Africa. The redefining of slavery brought with it an immediate

Similar Essays

Experimental And Computation Vibration Rotation Spectroscopy For Carbon Monoxide Through The Use Of High Resolution Infrared (Ir) Spectra

1886 words - 8 pages Experimental and Computation Vibration-Rotation Spectroscopy for Carbon Monoxide Through the Use of High-Resolution Infrared (IR) Spectra Introduction: The goal of this experiment is to study the most precise way of measuring molecular bond lengths and introduction to computational software used for studying molecular properties. This is of interest in that the instrument to being used, a Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer

Choose A Well Known Leader And By Using The Resources At Www.Leadership Values.Com Analyse Their Qualities Against The 4 E Criteria. Use Evidence To Show How Successfully They Apply To These Criteria

854 words - 3 pages Born in Therouanne, France, Gerard Houllier is seen as dedicated professional with unrivalled tactical knowledge. Gerard Houllier has a long history of supporting Liverpool. He was a teacher before a football manager, teaching at Alsop school in Walton. His managerial career began in 1973 as a player coach with French team Le Touquet. He managed Lens for three years and then he moved to the capital managing Paris St. Germain. As manager at Paris

The Arguements For And Against The Use Of Animals

2228 words - 9 pages to communicate immediate needs. However, their ability to create sentences with the words and use symbolism in the human sense is still open to question.There are many reasons for and against the use of animals in research. According to Coolican (1994), ?there are numerable examples of animals in pitiful situations in the psychological research laboratory?. However, researchers worldwide currently experiment with a variety of alternatives such as

Outline The Case For And Against The Use Of Referenda

2362 words - 9 pages OUTLINE THE CASE FOR AND AGAINST REFERENDAThe concept of referenda has existed for hundreds of years, coming into official use towards the end of the 19th century. There is evidence that the 'poll of the people' was used by William the Conqueror and by the Vatican in medieval times to affirm leaderships. Tacitus in 'Germania' suggests that Principes should decide minor questions, but great matters should be decided by the people. This idea