Fiber Optic Technology Essay

2350 words - 9 pages

TABLE OF CONTENTS IMBA 6830 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS 2 Fiber Optic Technology 3 How The Fiber Works 4 Single-Mode and Multimode Fibers 5 Optical fiber Sizes 6 Fiber To The Houses 6 Optical Networks 7 Transmission Technology 8 - SONET 9 - ATM 10 Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) 11 WEB REFERENCESS 13 SUMMARY 14 Fiber Optic Technology Among the tree types of media that can be used in transmitting information in the telecommunications world : · Copper wire · Fiber Optic · Wireless Fiber optic, is the one leading the telecommunication network.It is based on technologies and components that provide routing and overwhelming high-capacity levels, and speeds of immense magnitudes.Fiber optic is based on the principle that light in a glass medium can carry more information over longer distances than electrical signals can carry in a copper or coaxial medium. The purity of today?s glass fiber, combined with improved system electronics, enables, fiber to transmit digitized light signals well beyond 100Km (60 miles) without amplification.With few transmission losses, low interference, and high bandwidth potential, optical fiber is an almost ideal transmission medium.Fiber is unquestionably the transmission medium of choice. Whereas transmission over copper (coaxial cable), utilizes frequencies in the megahertz range, transmission over fiber utilizes frequencies a million times higher. The difference between electromagnetic waves used in coaxial cables and light waves used in fiber optic is the frequency.Transmission speeds of as high as 9.9 Gbps have become commonplace in the industry today. At this speed, the entire fifteen-volume set of Encyclopedia Britannica can be transmitted in well under one second.How The Fiber Works The operation of an optical fiber is based on the principle of total internal reflection.Light reflects (bounces back) or refracts ( alters its directions while penetrating a different medium), depending on the angle at which it strakes a surface.Lightwaves are guided trough the core of the optical fiber in much the same way that radio frequency (RF) signals are guided through coaxial cable. The lightwaves are guided to the other end of the fiber by being reflected within the core. Controlling the angle at which the light waves are transmitted makes it possible to control how efficiently they reach their destination. The composition cladding glass relative to the core glass determines the fiber?s ability to reflect light. The difference in the index of refraction of the core and the cladding causes most of the transmitted light to bounce off the cladding glass and stay within the core. In this way, the fiber core acts as a waveguide for the transmitted light.Single-Mode and Multimode Fibers There are two general categories of optical fibers.Multimode fiber was the first type of fiber to be commercialized. It has a much larger core than single-mode fiber, allowing hundreds of modes of light to propagate through...

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