I. Defeat of Prussian Reform
A. 1815: Frederick William III promised constitutional government
1. after War of Liberation
2. went back on promise in 1817
3. creates Council of State, only improved administrative efficiency.
B. 1819: king moved further from reform
1. his reform-minded ministers resigned, replaced with conservatives.
2. advise king to establish eight provincial estates (diets)
a. dominated by Junkers
b. only advisory ...view middle of the document...
3. publicly executed, becomes martyr
4. Metternich uses incident to suppress student clubs and liberal groups.
D. Carlsbad Decrees issued under Metternich's persuasion
1. dissolved Burschenschaften.
2. allowed university inspectors and press censors.
3. German Confederation passed Final Act
a. limits subjects discussed in constitutional chambers.
b. asserted right of monarchs to resist constitutionalist demands.
III. Repression in Great Britain
A. Lord Liverpool's ministry and Popular unrest
1. Tory ministry unprepared for problems of postwar dislocation
2. tried protecting rights of wealthy classes
3. 1815: Parliament passes Corn Law to maintain high prices for domestic
grain by taxing foreign grain.
4. Income tax on wealthy abolished
a. replaced with sales tax on consumer goods.
B. Combination Acts
1. outlaws workers' organizations or unions
2. wage protection removed
3. poor law of public relief under consideration of abolition.
C. Lower classes called for reform
1. radical leaders: Cobbett, Major John Cartwright, Henry "Orator" Hunt
2. government repressed discontent.
3. Coercion Act passed in March 1817
a. suspended habeas corpus and extended laws against gatherings.
D. Peterloo and the Six Acts
1. Industrial north demand Parliamentary reform.
a. "Peterloo" Massacre of radicals
b. Radical leaders arrested
2. Parliament passes Six Acts
a. series of laws
1. forbids large unauthorized, public meetings.
2. raised fines for libel
3. speeded up trials of political agitators.
4. increased newspaper taxes
5. prohibits training of armed groups.
6. allows local officials to search homes
3. Cato Street Conspiracy
a. extreme radicals had planned to...