Hazards In Process Industries Essay

2745 words - 11 pages

Two key parameters that needed to be calculated in order to plot the Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD) are Fracture Toughness ratio, Kr, and Load Ratio, Lr. A structure is considered as safe if the fracture toughness, KI is lesser than its critical value KIc, while, the structure will fail if the KI to KIc ratio is equal to 1. Lr determines how the failure will behave. There are two types of failure of materials; plastic collapse and brittle fracture. Plastic collapse is a slow mechanism where the materials started to permanently change. Plastic collapse provides greater load carrying capacity. Failure due to plastic collapse allows a margin of safety as it developed over a long period of time. Therefore, failure can be detected early and necessary arrangement can be made to avoid accidents.
While, brittle fracture happens in a fast manner and is considered as most dangerous failure as there is no room for a margin of safety. Due to low ductility of the material, evidence of distortion may not present until the material fails. Figure 2 below illustrates the significance of the FAD diagram. If a plot of Kr and Lr fall within the upper-left side of the graph, the material is predicted to approaching brittle fracture, while the material is said to have plastic collapse if a plot fall within the bottom part of the graph.


Figure 2: Failure Assessment Diagram significance (Ragupathy et al., 2010).

As for the question, the Kr and Lr plot fall within the safe region of FAD. It means that the vessel can still be operated within the minimum working pressure of 30 MPa or lesser to maintain the integrity of the vessel. However, it is mentioned that the vessel should be able to withstand twice its working pressure can be misleading. It is because, although the plot fall within the safe area, increasing the vessel’s working pressure to twice of current working pressure (30 MPa) may increase the value of Kr and therefore could cause the system to approach brittle fracture which is undesirable. Therefore, it is not recommended for the pressure vessel to stay in service without any modification to the process as evidence of distortion in brittle fracture mechanism might not able to be detected until it is too late.

Question 2: Corrosion Rate


Polarisation Curve for Carbon Steel Pressure Vessel
The slope of the polarisation curve, ∆y/∆x = ∆I/∆V = 0.5143 µA/mV. However, note that Ohm’s Law is given as R=V/I.
Therefore, the polarisation resistance, Rp= 1/slope
= 1/05143
= 1.944 mV/µA
Icorr = B/Rp , where B = BaBc/2.3(Ba+Bc), given Ba = 60mV/decade , Bc = 120 mV/decade
= (60 x 120)/2.3(60+120)
= 17.39

Thus, Icorr = B/Rp = 17.39/1.944
= 8.945 µA/cm2 (assumed that 1 cm2 of sample is used to obtain data)

The final wall thickness over 20 years of usage can be calculated using Faraday’s Law:
m/s = Mit/zF, and m = ρsd, where
m/s = total weight loss, centimetres per unit...

Find Another Essay On hazards in process industries

ohs ass Essay

1635 words - 7 pages health and safety hazards are identified in Swinburne places of work and controls implemented to eliminate or mitigate the risk to persons as far as is practicable.The undertaking of risk assessments and documentation of the process assist managers in understanding the decisions made around health and safety and also help Swinburne demonstrate that it has considered and identified foreseeable OHS risks and taken action where practicable. SCOPE OF

Safety Manager Essay

2161 words - 9 pages , accident investigations, and safety training (Leveson, 2011). The fastest-growing sectors in the safety engineering profession are those related to chemical process safety, environmental protection, software, and computer integrated manufacturing. As more sophisticated products enter the market, the duties of safety engineers will increase as they will be required to safeguard consumers from product hazards. History of successes There have been

This essay is a research essay of "Labor law OSHA", this is done for Business Ethics class

4569 words - 18 pages immigrant workers, many of whom work in industries with high ergonomic hazard rates. OSHA now conducts inspections and issues on all hazards with alert letters which are appropriated.OSHA also provides assistance to business, especially small businesses to help them address hazards issues in the workplace. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration, is constantly working with employers and employees to create better working conditions and

IDENTIFY POTENTIAL HAZARDS (HAZARD ANALYSIS)

751 words - 4 pages similar container. In consequences, consumers may suffer from nausea, stomach cramps, diarrhea, headache and fever. Then it comes to the process where machine is used to cut the cassavas into small pieces. In this stage, there are potential physical, biological and chemical hazards. If the machine used has not been well-maintained or is rusted, during the slicing process, there will be fallen piece of rust that may cause injury to consumers

Engineered Nanoparticles: A Cause for Responsible Innovation

895 words - 4 pages health effects these hazards may introduce whilst simultaneously calling for sovereign reform in the commercialization of these products and increased scrutiny of their regulating policies. Suspended air particulates, commonly referred to as pollution, have been scientifically proven to pose hazardous health effects on humans including an increased risk of coronary heart diseases such as Myocardial infarction and a heightened risk of developing

Hartman Industries Paper

1090 words - 4 pages above its competition, Hartman Industries must implement a quality improvement process to make business activites run smoother. Part of this plan increases business goals and allows the company to achieve desired results within the business. The Identified Processes As an industry leading plastic injection molding company, the business relies on key processes to perform various work tasks. Three main processes identified in Hartman Industries

Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)

1058 words - 4 pages by the signing into law the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) in December 29, 1970.Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)The Occupational Safety and Health Act or OSHA states the following: "each employer shall furnish to each of his employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to its employees. Each employer shall comply with

Employee Safety

1038 words - 4 pages hazards was marked by the signing into law the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) in December 29, 1970.The Occupational Safety and Health Act or OSHA states the following: "each employer shall furnish to each of his employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to its employees. Each employer shall comply with the occupational safety

The Meat Industry

969 words - 4 pages The Meat Industry The cattle industry produces vast amounts of strain in the environment. It is energy inefficient, pollutes water, occupies many acres of land, and deteriorates the health of the people who abuse its consumption. The government subsidizes this industry. Therefore, the price paid for meat doesn’t reflect the environmental hazards involved in the process. In order to protect our health and the health of the environment we

protection against fire

2614 words - 11 pages a) Basis of Safety of a Chemical Reactor Process or manufacturing industries usually uses chemicals in their processes or produces chemicals as the end products. Whenever chemicals are involved in the process industries, a concern of possible hazard should be raised. Chemicals not only pose a substantial hazard due to its properties, but also due to the chemical reaction itself. Runaway reaction as a result from exothermic reaction from chemical

Flood Hazard and Emergency Response Route Scenario in Olympia, Washington, U.S

2007 words - 9 pages hazards and the human populations affected by them. However, it’s up to humanity to respond to these disasters and be as prepared as possible. This report and analysis will seek to explore efficient route analysis for emergency vehicles and the public affected by a flooding disaster in a small geographic area. The background of GIS’s integration into the decision support structure, the current and evolving methods for managing data associated

Similar Essays

Hazard Identification And Risk Assesment Essay

1535 words - 6 pages . A hazard and operability (HAZOP) study is the typically used to qualitatively identify hazards in the process industries. HAZOP study assesses the hazards based on the severity and the probability of the hazards which then could trigger action to mitigate it or accept it with emergency response planning in mind. While, on the other hand, quantitative risk assessment should be done to rank the risk which could eventually help the safety engineer

Natural Hazards Are Rarely Completely Natural

1480 words - 6 pages , e.g. blizzards and floods. A natural process only becomes a natural hazard when the risk of human loss is presented. To put it in context, a flood in an unoccupied valley is a natural process, whereas a flood in a valley where a village is situated is a natural hazard. Natural disasters take natural hazards to the next level. A natural disaster is when a natural hazard results in extensive loss of life or property. Natural

Environment And Sustainable Development Essay

1788 words - 8 pages wide hazard must pay for some of the costs incurred by the community. A final principle is participation. Each individual must be provided with equal opportunity to shape natural hazards reduction action. In short, sustainable development can be defined in the context natural hazards reduction as a process of development that achieves five interrelated objectives which included long term economic development, health and safety through recognition

Child Labor Around The World Essay

1848 words - 7 pages , night shifts, exposure to hazardous material, mostly in glue used to attach the soles of shoes. Child Labor in India India is the largest number of urban and rural workers in the world. Seventeen and a half million child workers are acknowledged by the government of India. The estimation of child labor is between forty four million and one hundred million children. The export industries are hand- knotted carpets, gemstone polishing