'how Has Motherhood Been Socially Constructed And Experienced Across The Twentieth Century?'

1610 words - 6 pages

It is widely known that motherhood is viewed as the middle purpose to a woman's life. It is her destiny and through that she becomes mature and it is the supreme accomplishment in her entirely life. Women who choose not to have children are regarded as selfish and also, abortion is described as emotionally and psychologically injurious to women. There are also women who are childless with no choice and in the society they are seen as underprivileged. This social 'pressure' to have children is identified as 'motherhood mandate'. Motherhood can also be seen as an 'institution'. The need that women have for children is regarded as 'maternal instinct' and it is both normal and natural. It is obviously that social and cultural perspective has a huge influence in women deciding whether and how to become mother because women are expected to adapt to certain social norms and principles about motherhood. For instance a certain perspective of the 'perfect mother' is that she should be married, heterosexual couple, with her husband going to work and bring money to home, and her staying at home to raise 'her' children with the appropriate way and also to care her husband.Normally, the first adults with whom infants interact are their parents. As many studies of John Bowlby (1953) have shown, a close relationship is very important for infants' social development. This relationship which Bowlby called 'attachment' is a social and emotional bond between infant and the carer that spans both time and space. It involves both the warm feelings that the parent and the child have for each other and the comfort and support they provide to each other which becomes especially important during times of fear and stress. In most cases one of the parents serves as the primary carer of the child and these persons seems to be the mother of the particular child.Furthermore, women because of their 'maternal instinct' impulsively know how to take care and look after their children. They are naturally nurturing and natural caregivers and so women are the ones who are responsible for caring for their children. Women who give birth to a child must put their children's needs first. Public life, social life, creative activities and paid employ should come second to their mothering. If they do not do so they are regarded as 'bad mothers'.There is also an contained statement that mothers should be selfless and stay home to look after their child. Therefore motherhood is seen as an inequity against women in employment because women workers cause more trouble and are more expensive to companies than men are. Some employers such as the factors run by large multinational corporations in Central America and Southeast Asia simply dismiss women or oblige them to resign if they have a child.Another inequity against women in employment is that women do not have the same rights with men to be employed, that they must stay where they belong, at home,in order to raise their children ,do the...

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