Proceeding from a simplistic perception of regional stability, Washington utilized the surrogate strategy to control the outcomes of regional interactions in the Middle East and chose Israel to play the role of regional surrogate. But Israel, in many cases, instead of maintaining regional stability on behalf of the US, served its own interests which were not always consistent with US interest in regional stability. The Israeli violations, however, were either condoned or even approved by the US administrations. These reactions comprised what this chapter addressed as a pro-Israel model of intervention.
The pro-Israel intervention represented the US foreign policy reaction when the violation to regional stability was committed by Israel. The cases discussed above were evaluated against the US reaction to Israel’s regional behaviour; in terms of whether the Israeli behaviour served or hampered US interest in maintaining regional stability and whether or not the US opposed Israel when it acted in ways that the United States deemed undesirable. It was concluded that, as a general rule, Washington was ready to intervene to address any violation to the status quo in the Middle East system except when this violation was committed by its regional surrogate. Israel had contributed directly in destabilizing the Middle East system (pushing the system out of its equilibrium point) in several cases, four of which have been discussed above. These crises, in spite of their negative effect on regional stability, witnessed minimal US reaction.
For example, in the Six-Day-War and the volatile period that followed it; known as the phase of no war and no peace, it was supposed that Washington had a definite interest in intervening swiftly to address the imbalances caused by its regional surrogate. But the US reaction in both cases was only post factum. Washington overlooked the Israeli violation to the regional stability and put no pressure on the Israelis to withdraw from the territories they had occupied. The United States did provide increased arms supplies while doing relatively little to encourage Israeli concessions in the various peace talks that occurred during this period.
Similarly, the US was expected to intervene in a decisive way to prevent Israel from proceeding in its WMD plans, but it did not. In contrast to Washington's long-standing opposition to the spread of weapons of mass destruction, the United States had practically supported Israel's effort to maintain regional military superiority by turning a blind eye toward its various clandestine WMD programs. Even when the US administration decided to intervene to restore regional stability disrupted by its surrogate, as was the case in 1982 when the Israeli invasion of Lebanon and its complicit role in the massacre of innocent Palestinians by a Christian militia at the Sabra and Shatila refugee camps made the region less stable, the US aligned itself with the pro-Israel groups and engaged in a...