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M Achining Processes Essay

4066 words - 16 pages

Table of ContentsMilling1Surface Grinding1Lapping2Planning2Shaping/Planing2Turning/Facing3Cylindrical Grinding4Centre-less Grinding5Honing6Superfinishing7Thread Milling8Jig Boring8Horizontal Boring9Lathe Boring9Vertical Boring10Broaching11Drilling12Computer Aided Work Handling Processes (Transfer machines)13Computer Aided Work Storage (Transfer machines)13Machining the Component14Alternative Component Manufacture Setups16Bibliography17MillingTypical Component: Scribing Block, T-Nuts, V-Block.Milling is a multipoint cutting process in which material is removed from a workpiece by a rotating tool. With End Milling the material is usually removed by both the end and the periphery of the tool. Generally, the cutter rotates about an axis perpendicular to the surface. On occasion a single-point tool, such as a fly cutter, may be used.Process Characteristics- Uses a rotating cutter to produce a machined surface and creates small, discontinuous chips- Uses vertical and horizontal milling machines- Removes materials with the face and/or periphery of the cutter- Uses a wide variety of tools, including square end mills, ball end mills, shell end mills, and t-slot mills- Produces slots, angles, pockets, radii, and many other workpiece geometriesSurface Speed (S) =Spindle Speed (N) =Feed/Rev = Feed/Tooth x No. of TeethFeed/Min = Feed/Tooth x No. of Teeth x Spindle SpeedNOTE: The Feed/Tooth is taken from feed/tooth table available from most engineering booklets.Surface GrindingTypical component: Parallel Machining bars- Speeds and feeds are the same as other grinding processes- Process where Grinding wheel reciprocates over workpiece to highly accurate tolerance.LappingTypical Component: Slip gauges.Lapping is an abrasive process in which a rotation lap with loose abrasive slurry, removes very small amounts of material from flat surfaces. Low speed and low pressure result in finely finished surfaces of extreme flatness. The process of lapping is performed by manual or by machine methods to increase accuracy (Machine for the greater of the two). Other important advantages obtained automatically as a part of the process, are the correction of minor surface imperfections, improvement of surface finish, and potentially achieving a close fit between mating surfaces. Lapping is a gentle final operation commonly used to Microfinish flat or cylindrical surfaces but the process is also adaptable for spherical or specially formed surfaces. All lapping methods are done at low speed. Standard practice is to provide only 0.0005 in. of allowance for lapping but this process is capable of much more that that! Lapping can be performed either with cast iron laps using loose abrasives or with bonded abrasive wheels.Speeds vary from 150m/s to 4m/s whether the work is reciprocating over the job or vice-versa.A pressure of 0.02N/mm2 is used on soft materials when a pressure of up to 0.07N/mm2 is used on hard materials. The speeds and pressure can be determined by the type of...

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