Organizational Commitment Of Part Time And Full Time Employees

2924 words - 12 pages

AbstractIn recent years many educational institutions have increased their use of part-time adjuncts, especially with the introduction of distance learning courses. With this growing use questions about the efficacy of part-time and distance faculty have arisen. This paper tests whether organizational commitment, as described by Mowday (1979), differs between three groups of faculty: full-time, part-time, and part-time who work full-time for another organization. The authors used a 15 item, seven-point scale instrument to measure commitment of a sample of 479 full and part-time faculty at two midwestern universities. Those that worked full-time for another organization are more committed to organizations for whom they work part-time than are those working only part-time. No significant difference in commitment was observed between full-time and part-time employees.Organizational Commitment of Part-Time and Full-Time EmployeesIntroduction and LiteratureWith the rapid growth of non-traditional educational institutions and enrollment, many educational institutions have added significant numbers of part-time adjuncts to teach courses. With this growth a number of questions and rhetoric have arisen about the quality of instruction from part-timers (Rewick, 2001; Fulton, 2000; and Leatherman, 1998), "overuse and exploitation of part-time, non-tenure-track" faculty (Kavanagh, 2000, p. 26) and accusations about academic "sweatshops" (Cox, 2000, A-12). As institutions consider the proper use of part-time faculty, one underlying concern is whether part-time instructors, given their generally low pay and respect, are as committed to their work as full-time counterparts. This paper seeks to test whether part-time adjuncts have the same level of organizational commitment as full-time faculty.Recent research shows that the United States Government defines part-time employees as those workers who work between one and 35 hours per week (Feldman & Doerpinghaus, 1992). Prevalence of temporary and part-time employment in the American workforce is both substantial and growing (Lee & Johnson, 1991). The number of these workers has increased 70% from 1974 to 1994. In contrast, the total workforce increased only 42% (Risher, 1997). In addition, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (2000) reports that 17% of the workforce, which equates to over 22 million workers, are part-time. The later account for over 50% of the total workers in health care, retail, and service organizations (Feldman & Doerpinghaus, 1992). Additionally about 10.2% of U.S. male workers work part-time, while 25% of U.S. female workers work part-time (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2000). Another 4.5 million U.S. workers work at a secondary part-time job in addition to a primary full-time job; and approximately 1.7 million work at a secondary part-time job in addition to a primary part-time job (Lettau, 1995).Organizational commitment of workers is not a new concept in the study of organizational...

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