Restorative Justice Empowers Victims And Challenges Offenders

1415 words - 6 pages

Criticising the distinction between illness and disease, last studies in medical sociology consider it to be the same with the Cartesian dichotomy body/mind; disease being associated with the body and illness with the mind. On the other hand, this dichotomy reflects the separation between nature and culture, when disease can be understood as a natural phenomenon, while illness it is located on the side of the social and the cultural context. Looking deeper at the concept of disease, Bryan Turner argues that, disease is far from being a neutral organic phenomenon; the disease has also an obvious social and cultural side (B. S. Turner, 2008). This claim is based on the idea that what we call a ...view middle of the document...

Through this concept, the human body is understood as a dynamic process, “refers to one’s lived experience of one’s body as well as one’s experience of life mediated through the body as this is influenced by its physical, psychological, social, political, economic, and cultural environments (M. Nichter 2008:164). In this view, the disease is more than an organic condition as it is highly influencing the experience of the individual in the world (Marcum 2004:316 ) . Any damage to our body involves a distortion of how we perceive the world.
On the other hand, the human body experiences are par excellence socialized experience, bodily sensations and impulses are profoundly shaped in the social, economic and political patterns which determine the construction of certain organic states. This recognition of the involvement of social and cultural aspect led to the awareness of relativism when coming to disease and symptomatology. Even if in a particular context some signs can be seen as an indication of an unhealthy condition, passed to other socio-cultural spaces it might not. Also , same symptom or group of symptoms may indicate multiple conditions, and attaching a diagnosis can be often particularly influenced by cultural perspective on the disease in that area ( Young 1982).
The relationship between body, self and society is one of the key issues addressed in symbolic internationalism. According to this paradigm, "the body, self and society are interrelated the extent that distinctions between they are not only permeable and changeable, but also actively manipulated and configured " ( Wask and Vannini 2006:3 ) . Addressing the issue of the body through the symbolic interactionism approach, Wask and Vannini present in their first chapter “Body / embodiment. Symbolic Interaction and the Sociology of the Body” five distinct but complementary ways, in which the body was conceptualized body within interactionism theories: the body mirror , body drama , phenomenological body , body and socio- semiotic narrative body (Wask and Vannini , 2006:4 ) .
The mirror body highlights the primary role of gaze in establishing human self. In this respect, building self-esteem occurs as a result of a process of intuition, interpretation and internalisation of judgments that we imagine that the other makes in relation to our physical appearance . This process of self- creation by interpreting each other's gaze has a function of "normalizing” . The body is forced to conform to standardized rules.
Chronic diseases or disabilities, body misalignment standards imposed by society may cause a displacement of the vision of the self, causing " tension between body, self and identity " ( Charmaz and Rosenfeld, 2006: 37 ) .Body drama is the process by which the human body is constantly produced , reproduced, performed and presented through a series of regulated social practices and rituals . More than just "having" or "being " a body , people " do" their body; the process of...

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