Scientenstences Essay

6567 words - 26 pages

Arrhenius, Svante -- (Swedish Chemist) p 172-3, 468, 470. Known for work with acids and bases. Defined acids and bases in terms of their behavior when dissolved in water. Also suggested that rate constants vary exponentially with inverse temperature, and that for molecules to react upon collision they must become activated", introducing the parameter Ea became known as the activation energy.Aspdin, Joseph -- (British bricklayer), 827. Patented a product called portland cement that was used in the process for calcining a mixture of limestone and clay. When mixed with water, it hardened to a materical that resembled a kind of limestone found on the Isle of Portland. This product is now used worldwide.Aston, Francis W. -- (British chemist and physicist) 24. Developed technique of mass spectrometry as extension of the measurement of the charge-mass ratio of the electron. The relative masses on the atomic scale are related to absolute mass on the gram scale through a conversion factor. Mass spec is now the most accurate method for determining relative atomic and molecular masses.Avogadro, Amedo -- (Italian chemist) 13-15. Famous for his well-known postulate known as Avogadro's hypothesis, "Equal volumes of different gases (at the same temperature and pressure) contain equal numbers of particles." His work explained much of the previous work by several different chemists. His work was rewarded by the naming of an important constant, Avogadro's number, N0 = 6.022137 x 1023 Balmer, Johann Jakob -- (German chemist) 534. Discovered in 1885 that hydrogen atoms emit a series of lines in the visible region, with frequencies given by a simple formula. His work was not explained for over 30 years.Bartlett, Neil -- (American chemist) 94p, 800-1, 805p. Found in 1965 that by the exposure of sunlight, the thought to be chemically inert noble gases would react with the powerful fluorinating agent PtF6.Becquerel, Antoine Henri -- (French physicist) 499. Known as the discoverer of radioactivity. Reported in 1896 his observation that potassium uranyl sulfate could expose a photographic plate even in the dark. Found this information by the use of the photographic emulsion, a simple radiation detector that are still in use today in the film badges that are worn to monitor exposure to pentetrating radiation.Bednorz, J. Georg -- (German physicist) 831. Responsible for the discovery of the higher transition temperatures among perovskite ceramics. Found a Ba-L-Cu-O perovskite phase having a transition temperature of 35 K. His work set off a string of other scientists researching the same ideas and found ceramics of higher temperatures.Berthollet, Claude -- (French chemist) 10, 783. Believed that the proportions by mass of the elements in a particular compound were not fixed but could vary over a certain range. Berthollides, compounds that whose compositions differ depending on th method of preparation, are named in honor of Berthollet.Bethe, Hans -- (German-born American...

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