Segregation vs. Integration
One of the most significant issues which the United States has dealt with for decades is the issue of racial segregation. In a post-Civil Rights era, there is a common tendency to assume that racism is no longer a pressing social concern in America due to the gradual erosion of whiteness. During the late 1800s and much of the 1900s, segregation had been a controversial and divisive issue throughout the country. This issue stemmed from the separation of African Americans and whites during a period when slavery was recently abolished and Blacks were still looked down upon. This was the era of repressive Jim Crow laws, where strict segregation was mandated and racial segregation was regulated. After the Plessy v. Ferguson case of 1896, the Supreme Court ruled in favor of racial segregation as long as it was “separate but equal.” However, most facilities and services provided to African Americans were inferior and substandard compared to those offered to whites. This led to a massive uproar among the African American community, which paved the way for the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People was created which fought for civil rights among African Americans. Although after the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which outlawed any form of discrimination and segregation, the topic of segregation and integration still remains a contentious debate in America. Three writers who have opposing ideas on this topic are Daniel T. Lichter, Michael S. Murray, and Danielle Holley-Walker. Daniel Lichter opposes the idea of integration in his article “Integration or Fragmentation? Racial Diversity and the American Future.” He explains the Third Demographic Transition and writes how integration will lead to the deterioration of the country. Michael S. Murray is also an advocate for segregation as he explains in his article “Segregation and Civic Virtue” that segregation promotes civic virtue as opposed to integration. On the other hand, Danielle Holley-Walker believes in her article “A New Era for Desegregation” that paying attention to desegregation efforts is vital for the success of the nation and equality among its people.
First, Lichter opens his article “Integration or Fragmentation? Racial Diversity
and the American Future “ by explaining how diverse and multicultural America has become throughout the years. There are no longer boundaries between each race and integration within the country has been celebrated. However, Lichter says that this massive shift of demographics and integration among this diverse population is instead a source of growing conflict. Lichter introduces the idea of the “Third Demographic Transition,” which marks the unprecedented transition and changes in America in terms of race. New integration and immigration will drive racial diversity, which he believes will lead to minority fertility and white natural decrease. This will ultimately...